ACHS President and Founder Dorene Petersen spoke on a conference panel about Aromatherapy Science and Safety. Read below for a summary of the research that she presented.
The International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades (IFEAT) is a trade association founded in 1977. It represents the interests of companies involved in the production, processing, trading and manufacturing of the many thousands of ingredients used in flavours, fragrances and aromatherapy.
Learn more about IFEAT here.
About Dorene Petersen
ACHS President Dorene Petersen holds a BA in Archaeology and Anthropology from Otago University, New Zealand, a Diploma in Natural Therapeutics from the South Pacific College of Natural Therapies in Auckland, New Zealand, and completed specialized training in Chinese herbal medicine and moxibustion. She has also completed part one of the Advanced International Training Program in essential oils at Purdue University. Learn more about Dorene here.
Panel Discussion – Aromatherapy: Science & Safety
Archived from January 2021
The aromatherapy industry has become an important user of natural essential oils and this is significant for IFEAT members and non-members alike. In this panel, viewers heard industry experts in order to understand how these oils are being sold and marketed to ensure their safe use by the millions who are using them. Each participant on the panel explained their work in a short presentation. You can view ACHS President Dorene Petersen's portion of the panel in the video here.
- Effective Antiviral Activity of Essential Oils and their Characteristic Terpenes against Coronaviruses
- Investigation into SARS-CoV‑2 Resistance of Compounds in Garlic Essential Oil
- Geranium and Lemon Essential Oils and Their Active Compounds Downregulate Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), a SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-Binding Domain, in Epithelial Cells
- Functional imaging of effects of fragrances on the human brain after prolonged inhalation
- Evaluation of the Inhibitory Activities of COVID-19 of Melaleuca cajuputi Oil Using Docking Simulation
- Effects of essential oils on symptoms and course (duration and severity) of viral respiratory infections in humans
- Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antiviral Activities of the Essential Oils of Seven Lebanon Species
- Physiological effects in aromatherapy
Research Paper Summaries
Several constituents of Cajuput Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil, which are also commonly found in other essential oils, have demonstrated, via docking simulations, the ability to inhibit a key protein and protease for SARS-COV-2 docking in humans: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and protease PDB6LU7. The 10 essential oil constituents from Cajuput essential oil which showed the strongest inhibitory action were the following in order of strength: Terpineol, Guaiol, Linalool, 1,8 cineole, β-Selinenol, α-Eudesmol, γ-Eudesmol. Synergistic actions were also demonstrated between these constituents. Researchers concluded the results demonstrated Cajuput essential oil shows potential as a tool to prevent SARS-COV-2 from entering the human body.
- My, T., Loan, H., Hai, N., Hieu, L. T., Hoa, T. T., Thuy, B., Quang, D. T., Triet, N. T., Anh, T., Dieu, N., Trung, N. T., Hue, N. V., Tat, P. V., Tung, V. T., & Nhung, N. (2020). Evaluation of the Inhibitory Activities of COVID-19 of Melaleuca cajuputi Oil Using Docking Simulation. ChemistrySelect, 5(21), 6312–6320. https://doi.org/10.1002/slct.202000822
- My, T., et al. (2020). Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of COVID-19 of Melaleuca cajuputi oil using docking simulation. ChemistrySelect, 5(21), 6312-6320
Several essential oils have been investigated in vitro and in limited in vivo studies for their antiviral properties against HSV1 and HSV2, influenza, some coronaviruses including avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), amongst others. While the exact site of action is still under investigation, essential oils appear to be most effective against enveloped viruses before and after host cell absorption. This is attributed to the lipophilic nature of essential oils and their ability to disrupt phospholipid bilayer membranes. Essential oils have demonstrated potential to be effective disinfectant agents, have synergistic effects with antiviral medications, possible agents to prevent infection. However, there are limitations due to the mechanism of action and the need for the essential oils to come into contact with free virus.
- Nadjib BM (2020) Effective Antiviral Activity of Essential Oils and their Characteristic Terpenes against Coronaviruses: An Update. J Pharmacol Clin Toxicol 8(1):1138.
- Nadjib, B. M. (2020). Effective antiviral activity of essential oils and their characteristic terpenes against coronaviruses: An update. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology, 8(1):1138.
A commercially available standardized oral capsule preparation (Myrtol) composed of eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus, sweet orange Citrus sinensis, myrtle Myrtus communis and lemon Citrus limonum and spike lavender Lavandula latifolia essential oils has been shown in clinical trials to reduce duration time and severity of of acute bronchitis of viral origin, in humans. This oral delivery of essentials also provided mild to moderate symptom relief. Researchers concluded these clinical trials provided enough evidence for future studies examining the effects of oral delivery of essential oil preparations for other respiratory viral infections, and examination of effectiveness of other essential oil deliveries such as steam inhalations on these types of infections.
- Paparoupa, M., & Gillissen, A. (2016). Is Myrtol® Standardized a New Alternative toward Antibiotics?. Pharmacognosy reviews, 10(20), 143–146. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.194045
- Matthys, H., de Mey, C., Carls, C., Ryś, A., Geib, A., & Wittig, T. (2000). Efficacy and tolerability of myrtol standardized in acute bronchitis. A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial vs. cefuroxime and ambroxol. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 50(8), 700–711
As has been noted in previous literature, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a key receptor for entry of the SARS-COV-2 virus into human cells. Any inhibitor of this receptor has potential to be an antiviral agent. In vitro investigations showed geranium Pelargonium graveolens and lemon Citrus limonum essential oils and several of their key constituents demonstrated strong ACE2 inhibition in human epithelium cells and significantly downregulated ACE2. The constituents of geranium and lemon essential oils which showed the strongest inhibitory and downregulating effects were citronellol, geraniol, limonene, and neryl acetate. No cytotoxic effects were seen on the epithelial cells from the geranium and lemon essential oils.
- Senthil Kumar, K. J., Gokila Vani, M., Wang, C. S., Chen, C. C., Chen, Y. C., Lu, L. P., Huang, C. H., Lai, C. S., & Wang, S. Y. (2020). Geranium and Lemon Essential Oils and Their Active Compounds Downregulate Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), a SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-Binding Domain, in Epithelial Cells. Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(6), 770. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9060770
Organosulfur compounds in garlic essential oil demonstrated strong ACE2 inhibition and strong inhibitory effects main protease (PDB6LU7) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Amazingly 17 of the 18 compounds in garlic essential oil demonstrated activity with the ACE2 protein and the PDB6LU7 protein in the docking simulations. Researchers concluded these results showed garlic essential oil to have potential as a natural antiviral agent for SARS-COV-2 by blocking protein maturation of the virus and spread of the infection.
- Thuy, B., My, T., Hai, N., Hieu, L. T., Hoa, T. T., Thi Phuong Loan, H., Triet, N. T., Anh, T., Quy, P. T., Tat, P. V., Hue, N. V., Quang, D. T., Trung, N. T., Tung, V. T., Huynh, L. K., & Nhung, N. (2020). Investigation into SARS-CoV-2 Resistance of Compounds in Garlic Essential Oil. ACS omega, 5(14), 8312–8320. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c00772
- Thuy, B., et al. (2020). Investigation into SARS-CoV-2 Resistance of Compounds in Garlic Essential Oil. ACS Omega, 5(14), 8312–8320.